Abbreviations, Terms and Explanations


A secondaries (secondary wing feathers) ad. adult, sexually mature -> adultplumage
Ad secondary coverts distal facing outward
Af anterior vane dorsal upper side (back)
Ax axillaries (axillary feathers) DS/Ø average, average
B breast feathers imm. immature -> immature plumage
Ba abdomen juv. juvenile -> juvenile plumage
rump feathers Kf small feathers
D alula (alular feathers) lH longest primary wing feather
F wing lS longest tail feather
H primaries (primary wing feathers) M, m male, masculine
Hd primary coverts OS upper side
If posterior vane proximal facing inward
K throat feathers UAd ventral secondary coverts
L leg UHd ventral primary coverts
OSd dorsal tail coverts US underside (ventral side)
R back feathers ventral underside (abdomen)
S tail feathers W, w female, feminine
Schei crown feathers    
Schu shoulder feathers    
USd ventral tail coverts    

Legend for Species Pages
Anzahl H Number primaries
Einbuchtungen (A/I) Notches (Ant./Post. Vane)
Anzahl S Number tail feathers
Maße Lengths
KHI KHI (Kipp’scher Handflügelindex)
Bemerkungen Comments
Geschlecht/Alter Gender/Age
Federn Feathers
Maße Lengths
Fund Date of Discovery

You will find general information in the upper section of the species pages. Most of this information has been taken from the standard reference work written by R.März, but also from the "Handbook" and other reachable sources.
Below this section
, you will find pages from my feather collection and a corresponding description next to them. Wherever possible, I display the different plumage types.
The feather types are listed in the sequence from left to right and and from top to bottom.
The length dimensions refer to the feathers next to them and can thus serve as a scale.
You can display the feather images in the overview with a higher resolution by clicking them. (Attention: This requires a longer loading time.)
A centimeter measurement bar has been superimposed in the larger images.
Finally, I also specify the so-called Kipp'schen Handflügelindex (KHI) (as a percentage). This index is calculated as the ratio of the distance of the No. 1 secondary to the wing tip (x 100) to the total wing length. This index serves as a flight biological measurement parameter and gives an indication of a bird’s flight capability. It can be helpful in identifying birds found dead.

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